Regulated Power Supply – circuit diagram and working principle

Construction and working of regulated power supply

Hi friends, today we are going to learn about regulated power suppply, what are its the components? how it works?

The general block diagram of regulated power supply is shown below:

Regulated power supply block diagram
Regulated power supply block diagram

1)      AC supply and transformer:

A power supply is used to provide the required amount of power at specific voltage from a primary source which can be ac mains or a battery. A transformer changes the ac mains (line) voltage to a required value. It is used to step the voltage up or down. In a transistor radio it may be a step-down transformer and in a CRT it may be a step-up transformer. Transformer provides isolation from the power line. It should be used even when any change in voltage is not necessary.

2)      Rectifier:

Full wave bridge rectifier circuit diagram
Full wave bridge rectifier circuit diagram

A rectifier converts ac into dc. It may be a half-wave rectifier, a full-wave rectifier using a transformer with centre-tapped secondary winding or a bridge rectifier. But the output of a rectifier may be fluctuating.

3)      Filter:

LC filter
LC filter

A filter circuit is used for smoothing out the ac variations from the rectified voltage. There are four types of filters: 1) Capacitor filter, 2) Inductor filter, 3) L-C filter and 4) R-C filter.

4)      Voltage regulator:

A voltage regulator is necessary to maintain a constant output dc voltage by providing line regulation and load regulation. A zener -regulator, transistorized regulator or three terminal IC regulator can be used for this purpose. A switched mode power supply (SMPS) is used to provide large load current with negligible power dissipation in the series pass transistor.

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