Digital Stopwatch using 8051 Microcontroller: Electronics Project

In this mini-project, we are going to make a simple Digital Stopwatch by using a Microcontroller from 8051 families. Digital Stopwatch allows you to record the exact number of hours and minutes you worked on a task/activity. It is a special type of watch with buttons that start, stop, and then zero the hands, used to time races.

Components required

  • 8051 Microcontroller (89C51)
  • Resistor – 10K
  • Capacitor – 10uF, 33pF (two)
  • Crystal oscillator – 12MHz
  • LCD display.

Circuit diagram

Digital Stopwatch using 8051 Microcontroller
Digital Stopwatch using 8051 Microcontroller

Pin description of LCD display

lcd pin diagram
LCD pin diagram
Pinnumber Name Description
1 Vss Ground
2 Vdd +5V
3 Vee Contrast Adjustment -2V to -5V
4 RS Register Select
5 RW 1 -Read, 0-Write
6 E Enable Strobe
7 D0 Data Line
8 D1 Data Line
9 D2 Data Line
10 D3 Data Line
11 D4 Data Line
12 D5 Data Line
13 D6 Data Line
14 D7 Data Line
15 LED+ Backlit LED +V Vdd (Optional signal)
16 LED- Backlit LED +V Vdd (Optional signal)

C program

// ************************************************
// Project:   Digital Stopwatch using 8051 microcontroller
// Author:    Mayuresh Joshi
// Blog: myclassbook.org
// ************************************************
#include<reg51.h>
//Function declarations
void cct_init(void);
void delay(int);
void lcdinit(void);
void WriteCommandToLCD(int);
void WriteDataToLCD(char);
void ClearLCDScreen(void);
void InitTimer0(void);
void UpdateTimeCounters(void);
void DisplayTimeToLCD(unsigned int,unsigned int,unsigned int);
//*******************
//Pin description
/*
P2.4 to P2.7 is data bus
P1.0 is RS
P1.1 is E
*/
//********************
// Defines Pins
sbit RS = P1^0;
sbit E  = P1^1;
// Define Clock variables
unsigned int usecCounter = 0;
unsigned int msCounter   = 0;
unsigned int secCounter  = 0;
unsigned int minCounter  = 0;
unsigned int hrCounter   = 0;
// ***********************************************************
// Main program
//
void main(void)
{
cct_init();             // Make all ports zero
lcdinit();              // Initilize LCD
InitTimer0();           // Start Timer0
while(1)
{
if( msCounter == 0 )                                       // msCounter becomes zero after exact one sec
{
DisplayTimeToLCD(hrCounter, minCounter, secCounter);   // Displays time in HH:MM:SS format
}
UpdateTimeCounters();                                      // Update sec, min, hours counters
}
}
void cct_init(void)
{
P0 = 0x00;   //not used
P1 = 0x00;   //not used
P2 = 0x00;   //used as data port
P3 = 0x00;   //used for generating E and RS
}
void InitTimer0(void)
{
TMOD &= 0xF0;    // Clear 4bit field for timer0
TMOD |= 0x02;    // Set timer0 in mode 2
TH0 = 0x05;      // 250 usec reloading time
TL0 = 0x05;      // First time value
ET0 = 1;         // Enable Timer0 interrupts
EA  = 1;         // Global interrupt enable
TR0 = 1;         // Start Timer 0
}
void Timer0_ISR (void) interrupt 1     // It is called after every 250usec
{
usecCounter = usecCounter + 250;   // Count 250 usec
if(usecCounter==1000)              // 1000 usec means 1msec
{
msCounter++;
usecCounter = 0;
}
TF0 = 0;     // Clear the interrupt flag
}
void UpdateTimeCounters(void)
{
if (msCounter==1000)
{
secCounter++;
msCounter=0;
}
if(secCounter==60)
{
minCounter++;
secCounter=0;
}
if(minCounter==60)
{
hrCounter++;
minCounter=0;
}
if(hrCounter==24)
{
hrCounter = 0;
}
}
void DisplayTimeToLCD( unsigned int h, unsigned int m, unsigned int s )   // Displays time in HH:MM:SS format
{
ClearLCDScreen();      // Move cursor to zero location and clear screen
// Display Hour
WriteDataToLCD( (h/10)+0x30 );
WriteDataToLCD( (h%10)+0x30 );
//Display ':'
WriteDataToLCD(':');
//Display Minutes
WriteDataToLCD( (m/10)+0x30 );
WriteDataToLCD( (m%10)+0x30 );
//Display ':'
WriteDataToLCD(':');
//Display Seconds
WriteDataToLCD( (s/10)+0x30 );
WriteDataToLCD( (s%10)+0x30 );
}
void delay(int a)
{
int i;
for(i=0;i<a;i++);   //null statement
}
void WriteDataToLCD(char t)
{
RS = 1;             // This is data
P2 &= 0x0F;                         // Make P2.4 to P2.7 zero
P2 |= (t&0xF0);     // Write Upper nibble of data
E  = 1;             // => E = 1
delay(150);
E  = 0;             // => E = 0
delay(150);
P2 &= 0x0F;                         // Make P2.4 to P2.7 zero
P2 |= ((t<<4)&0xF0);// Write Lower nibble of data
E  = 1;             // => E = 1
delay(150);
E  = 0;             // => E = 0
delay(150);
}
void WriteCommandToLCD(int z)
{
RS = 0;             // This is command
P2 &= 0x0F;                         // Make P2.4 to P2.7 zero
P2 |= (z&0xF0);     // Write Upper nibble of data
E  = 1;             // => E = 1
delay(150);
E  = 0;             // => E = 0
delay(150);
P2 &= 0x0F;                         // Make P2.4 to P2.7 zero
P2 |= ((z<<4)&0xF0);// Write Lower nibble of data
E  = 1;             // => E = 1
delay(150);
E  = 0;             // => E = 0
delay(150);
}
void lcdinit(void)
{
///////////// Reset process from datasheet /////////
delay(15000);
P2 &= 0x0F;                           // Make P2.4 to P2.7 zero
P2 |= (0x30&0xF0);    // Write 0x3
E  = 1;               // => E = 1
delay(150);
E  = 0;               // => E = 0
delay(150);
delay(4500);
P2 &= 0x0F;                           // Make P2.4 to P2.7 zero
P2 |= (0x30&0xF0);    // Write 0x3
E  = 1;               // => E = 1
delay(150);
E  = 0;               // => E = 0
delay(150);
delay(300);
P2 &= 0x0F;                           // Make P2.4 to P2.7 zero
P2 |= (0x30&0xF0);    // Write 0x3
E  = 1;               // => E = 1
delay(150);
E  = 0;               // => E = 0
delay(150);
delay(650);
P2 &= 0x0F;                           // Make P2.4 to P2.7 zero
P2 |= (0x20&0xF0);    // Write 0x2
E  = 1;               // => E = 1
delay(150);
E  = 0;               // => E = 0
delay(150);
delay(650);
/////////////////////////////////////////////////////
WriteCommandToLCD(0x28);    //function set
WriteCommandToLCD(0x0c);    //display on,cursor off,blink off
WriteCommandToLCD(0x01);    //clear display
WriteCommandToLCD(0x06);    //entry mode, set increment
}
void ClearLCDScreen(void)
{
WriteCommandToLCD(0x01);   // Clear screen command
delay(1000);
}

Download

Click here to download C program, Proteus simulation file, HEX file, etc.

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